The Seasons Are Changing: Here’s How You Can Support Immune Health
things never change: The kids go back to school in the fall, the leaves change
color shortly after, the holiday season approaches with increasing speed every
passing year, and the cold or flu always seems to hit a household
when all of these festivities are happening.
from experience that the common cold and flu hit the hardest when the weather
gets the chilliest, but why is that? And can probiotics really help support
your immune health so you can enjoy the holidays approaching?
Are the seasons actually connected
to science, it turns out that there are three main ways that the seasons may
- Environmental factors: One of the main predictors of disease rates across the globe is temperature.1 For example, evidence shows that both the northern and southern hemispheres have higher rates of seasonal respiratory viruses during their respective winter months.1 In addition, lower humidity levels (so dryer climates) are also associated with higher rates of these viruses.1 Humidity is believed to influence a virus’ stability and its ability to pass the infection on.1 Although these trends of virus prevalence are well-observed, more research is needed in this area as to why.
- Gene expression: Studies have found that 94 DNA transcripts, the basis for gene expression, show seasonal variability.2 This variability was found in transcripts involved with immune function.2 If the gene expression for immune function isn’t functioning optimally, that person may be more susceptible to these seasonal conditions.
- Human behavior: Cold weather usually changes people’s routines. As temperatures drop, people are likely to spend more time indoors and in confined areas, so viruses can spread easily by contact. Because people are inside more often and the sun is shining less, vitamin D levels tend to drop in the winter.1 Vitamin D is also believed to play a role in the immune response.1
How can you use nutrition as a tool
to support your immune system this season?
Common colds are so common that, on average, adults usally experience two to three per year, and kids often contract more, making colds the main culprit for missed days of work and school.3 Maintaining proper immune system function is especially important during this time. There are many simple habits you can start today to help keep the cold and flu at bay.
Key vitamins and probiotics may also play a role in maintaining immune health. The age-old remedy of drinking orange juice for immune health may actually hold some validity. Oranges are high in vitamin C, and this vitamin has been shown to be a powerful antioxidant that contributes to the body’s immunity.4 Not getting enough vitamin C can impair immunity and weaken your body’s immune defense.4 Foods that are high in vitamin C include guavas, red bell peppers, tomatoes, and the ever-popular orange juice.
Vitamin D also plays an important role in immune function. Vitamin D receptors are expressed on various immune cells and can modulate immune response.5 It is common for vitamin D levels to drop in the winter months, and oftentimes people may not even be aware if they are deficient in this nutrient.1 Low vitamin D levels are also associated with impaired immune function.5 Foods that contain vitamin D include fortified dairy products and plant-based dairy alternatives, fatty fish like salmon, and eggs. Some orange juices are also fortified with vitamin D.
A staggering 70% of the immune system is located in the gut, and one not-so-intuitive habit to maintain your immune health, in addition to getting adequate amounts of these key vitamins, is to consider probiotics.6 Research shows that the probiotic strains Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07 may help support immune function.7
the potential modes of action for how certain probiotics may support the immune
harmful bacteria or viruses from attaching to the intestine
compounds that prevent other microorganisms from growing in the intestine
beneficial substances that promote intestinal health
the immune system (the interaction of probiotics in the gut and immune cells
throughout the body)
probiotics to your daily routine is like adding one more tool to your toolbox
for supporting your immune health this winter. Speak to your healthcare
practitioner before changing your diet or incorporating the strategies
- Sloan C et al. Impact of pollution, climate, and
sociodemographic factors on spatiotemporal dynamics of seasonal respiratory
viruses. Clin Trsl Sci.
A et al. Seasonal effects on gene expression. PLoS One.
colds: protect yourself and others. CDC. https://www.cdc.gov/features/rhinoviruses/index.html. Accessed September 24, 2019.
AC et al. Vitamin C and Immune Function. Nutrients. 2017;9(11):1211.
C. Vitamin D and the immune system. J
G et al.
Allergy and the
gastrointestinal system. Clin Exp Immunol. 2008;153(Suppl 1):3–6.
- Kang E-J et al. The effect of
probiotics on prevention of common cold: a meta-analysis of randomized
controlled trial studies. Korean J Fam Med. 2013;34(1):2-10.
M et al. Probiotic mechanisms of action.
Ann Nutr Metab. 2012;61(2):160-174.
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